International Forum


Graduate School

Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies

P. O. Box 038, Silang 4118, Cavite, Philippines

E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Fax: [63] (46) 414-4361


Print ISSN : 0119-2000   Online ISSN : 2350-7497 




Editor:  Dr. Prema Gaikwad         

Internal Reviewers: 
Dr. Arceli Rosario, Dr. LeRoy Ruhupatty, Dr. Prema Gaikwad, Dr. Samuel Gaikwad 

Assistant to the Editor: Mr. Donie Ver Medalla & Mrs. Cathy Sarco-Celis 
Graphic Designer: Mrs. Mirriam A. Carlos-Pamula
Web Designer: Mr. Raimond Luntungan & Mr. Marcus Zaua

External Reviewers:

Business:  Dr. Alister Hunt (USA), Dr. Bob Krone (USA), Dr. Carlos Biaggi (Lebanon), Dr. Ismael Garcia (Dominican Republic), Dr. José Goris (USA), Dr. Josephine Ganu (Kenya), Dr. Letroy O. Cummings, Dr. Pak Thong Lee (Papua New Guinea), Dr. Ronny Kountur (Indonesia), Dr. Paluku Kazimoto (Thailand), Dr. Sunia Fukofuka (USA). 

 Dr. Alla Kourova (USA), Dr. Baiyun Chen (USA), Dr. Bien Nebres (Thailand), Dr. Bordes Saturne (USA), Dr. Carianne Bernadowki (USA), Dr. Christian Ekoto (Haiti), Dr. Darrin Thomas (Thailand), Dr. Genevieve Boucaud (Trinidad & Tobago), Dr. Ian Abordo (Philippines), Dr. Issumael Nzamutuma (USA), Dr. Jose Dial (USA), Dr. Joseph Masinda (Democratic Republic of Congo), Dr. Ismael Talili (Philippines), Dr. Lazarus Ndiku Makewa (Kenya), Dr. Las Johansen B. Caluza (Philippines), Dr. Maricel Gomez (Philippines), Dr. Nadine Joseph (USA), Dr. Sana Mitchell, Dr. Nancy Vyhmeister (USA), Dr. Sandeep Lloyd Kachchhap (India), Dr. Shawna Vyhmeister (Lebanon), Dr. Sheralee Thomas (USA), Dr. Stephen Joseph (USA).

Public Health:
Dr. Daniel Ganu (Kenya), Dr. Ayuka Oendo (USA/Kenya), Dr. Loraine Villagomez (Philippines), Dr. Moses Kayongo (Rwanda), Dr. Stella Appiah, Dr. Thaddee Katembo Kambere (Democratic Republic of Congo).


Subscription Information

International Forum is available online at internationalforum.aiias.edu. Subscription is free. If you wish to receive the twice-yearly announcements of the publication of the International Forum journal, simply send an e-mail to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with “subscribe” in the subject line. 


About the cover: The interlocking squares, representing the mental, physical, social, and spiritual dimensions of life, also illustrate the interdisciplinary nature of this journal. The palm fronds and the alpha and omega are the traditional AIIAS logo, to which are added the blue ocean waves which surround the Philippines. Cover design by Mirriam A. Carlos-Pamula.

The International Forum is a peer-reviewed journal published electronically

twice yearly by the Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies

(AIIAS) Graduate School. It deals with academic themes of interest to an

interdisciplinary, international readership. The purpose of International Forum

is to provide scholars and interested professionals with a forum for

disseminating original research focusing on the needs of the Asia-Pacific region.

The journal focuses on current themes related to Business, Education, and

Health, particularly those integrating Christian values, ethics, and development.

Views and opinions expressed in the International Forum represent those of the

authors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of the editors or

the Graduate School.