International Business Themes 
Shawna Vyhmeister


The Impact of Outsourcing and Brain Drain
on Global Economic Equilibrium

Khin Maung Kyi

Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Fact or Fiction?
Sunia Fukofuka

Knowledge Management and its Applicability to Higher Educational Institutions 
Ismael García 

Teachers’ and Principals’ Perceptions of
Principals’ Leadership Effectiveness in
Selected Adventist Schools in the Philippines

Edwin Mondol

The Importance of Theoretical Comprehension
for Nursing Students’ Clinical Competence
Nilawati Soputri and Prema Gaikwad

The food-mood solution: All-natural ways to banish anxiety, depression, anger, stress, overeating, and alcohol and drug problems–and feel good again
Jack Challem
Hanah Spence

International Business Themes

       The world is growing increasingly smaller. As communication technology and international travel become faster and less expensive, the global marketplace has become a reality, not just a figure of speech. What happens in one corner of our global village affects what happens on the other side of the world. And business and economic matters affect health, education, and quality of life everywhere.

       This issue focuses on some of these themes of international concern. Most are directly related to business, and one examines leadership effectiveness in educational institutions. To round out the group of studies, the Dissertation Research feature for this issue relates to nursing education.

       One of the key concerns for the developing world has to do with the globalization of business. Not only are products now manufactured in other parts of the world, but people are also moved from one place to another as job opportunities arise. What does this mean for developing countries? Are they destined to lose their best employees to developed world positions? Will this brain drain hurt the developing country as it loses resources it has developed and receives little in return? These are some of the issues Kyi addresses in his study of outsourcing and brain drain.

       A related topic addressed by Fukofuka has to do with foreign aid given to developing countries. Does it really help? Often aid comes with specific strings attached that may or may not be the best for the country. Often aid is given for projects of interest to the donor, but not necessarily of highest interest to the country. Do countries learn to depend on aid, thus crippling their own sense of agency and developing a new type of colonialism? What kind of aid is most effective? How can aid help, and not hurt developing countries?

       Another factor of concern, especially for developing countries, is knowledge. We have been told that technology will continue to widen, rather than reducing, the gap between the haves and the have nots. Is that happening? How has technology affected education? And how have new, technology-supported management techniques, such as knowledge management, affected education? Do business techniques such as this have a place in education? If so, to what extent, and how can it be applied? This is the focus of García’s article.

       Leadership is another topic that has come of age and become a buzzword, both in the workplace, and in the field of education. But, what makes a good leader? Can leadership be taught? Can leadership effectiveness be measured? Mondol’s Philippines-based research looks at teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of their principal. While his study focuses specifically on educational leadership, the implications for leadership in other areas of administration and business are clear.

       The Dissertation Research article selected for this issue focuses on the very important question of the relationship between knowledge of theory and the ability to perform in clinical situations—something that is very important for nursing students, whose ability to apply their knowledge in practical ways could make the difference between life and death for some of their patients. But are practical skills acquired separately from theory, or do they build on it? These are some of the concerns addressed in Soputri and Gaikwad’s article, which is based on Soputri’s dissertation  


Shawna Vyhmeister, PhD
International Forum
Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies
Silang, Cavite , Philippines

The Impact of Outsourcing and Brain Drain
on Global Economic Equilibrium