Volume 15 Number 1 

Concerns of the 21st Century
Safary Wa-Mbaleka


The Digital Divide After 20 Years:
A Rural Philippine Perspective

Shawna Vyhmeister and Ronald Vyhmeister
The Influence of Teenager Computer Usage on Their Academics and Spirituality
Vijay K. Kollabathula

Designing Learning Modules for Online Courses:
The 5-WH Approach

Safary Wa-Mbaleka

Effects of Teaching Methods and Students' Attitud
on Academic Performance

Raimond D. Luntungan

Knowledge Creation and Sharing Practices Model
for Extension Offices: The Dela Salle University-Dasmariñas Experience

Maria Theresa D. Gochuico
Globalization and Self-Perception of Women of
Asian and African Decent

Genevieve C. M. Boucaud
Globalization and Discriminatory Practices Against Trans-women in the Philippines
Nadine A. Joseph
Couples' Experiences and Perspective of
Interracial Marriage: A Phenomenologycal
Study Among Adventists

Laurisse Sossah

Concerns of the 21st Century

        While globalization has brought quite some benefits to the world population in general, it has raised concerns especially in this new century. The more people work hard to make the most out of globalization, the more concerns come out as a result. These concerns are raised in education, religion, politics, environment, economics, business, health, and all other aspects of society. While continuing to maximize the benefits of globalization, it is important to understand the related concerns and try to generate possible solutions to create a more balanced view of the world we are living in.

        Looking critically at globalization, one can quickly discover several concerns that should generate scholarly discussion today. From the last two Graduate School forums held on the campus of Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies (AIIAS) in 2011 and 2012, a number of presentations addressed some specific concerns of globalization, especially in the developing world. A number of the papers presented were selected for publication. The concern of this volume of International Forum is to start exploring some of the issues that globalization is presenting in the 21st century. What are some of the most pressing issues of the 21st century in education, organizations, society, and church? What can be done about these issues?

        The eight articles in this issue address a broad range of concerns. Vyhmeister and Vyhmeister, respectively chair of the education and director of recruitment and advancement, present the findings of a study on digital divide conducted in a rural educational setting in the Philippines. They have both worked and traveled around the world. Their experience with education in both urban and rural areas, and both developing and developed countries provided them with a critical eye on the issues of digital divide. The concern in their study is that access to technology might be the most researched issue, but from their study, they found that another area of divide is the lack of equal access to knowledge. This study provides a fresh look at the issue of digital divide.

        Kollabathula conducted a similar study in the Philippines. However, his was focused primarily on the effect of technology usage on the academic performance and the spirituality of teenagers. While he did not find any significant effect of technology usage on the student’s academics and spirituality, his study revealed that ownership of technology can have some impact. The study is an addition to an already-conflicting body of research of the effects of technology usage on academic performance.

        Wa-Mbaleka’s piece is a theoretical model that he developed to address the concern that many higher education educators continue to raise about online instruction. Many of them are required to teach online without any solid training in instructional design and delivery. To get novice online faculty started, Wa-Mbaleka’s article provides practical strategies that can be applied in designing the modules of an online course in a Christian higher education institution.

        The next two studies were done in a school setting. Luntungan’s study investigated the impact of different teaching methods on academic performance of college students in a business class. Just like the literature available on teaching methods, cooperative learning yielded better results than lecture. Gochuico’s study focused on the collaboration that can enhance partnership between a university and the local communities, business, and organizations. The model that came out of the study shows how knowledge creation and knowledge sharing can enhance these partnerships.

        The last three studies are all qualitative studies that were conducted to try to understand some of the concerns that are current in society. Boucaud explored the self-perception of women of African an Asian descent. She found that globalization has negatively affected the self-image of these women to some degree. Joseph’s study explored the discriminatory practices against homosexuals in the Philippines. Her study gave a voice to this group of individuals whose voice is not always heard in scholarship because the issue is still considered a taboo in many societies. The last study explored the lived experiences of interracial couples. In this study, Sossah interviewed Christian interracial couples to explore the challenges that they face and how they cope with the cultural differences.

         It is the hope of the editorial team that the current issue of International Forum will generate more discussion on the concerns of the 21st century, raise awareness where it is needed, and promote new avenues for further research on the topics presented here. All readers are encouraged to get in touch with the authors to expand the discussion.


Safary Wa-Mbaleka, EdD
Guest Editor, International Forum
Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies
Silang, Cavite, Philippines