Volume 16 Number 1 

Globalization, Ethics, and Higher Education
Shawna Vyhmeister


Economic Wealth and Education: A Global Comparison
Shawna Vyhmeister and Ronald Vyhmeister
Avoiding Ethical Pitfalls: A Cross-Case Study
of the Global Financial Crisis and
the Seventh-day Adventist Church

Carlos Biaggi

Implementation of the Anti-Human Trafficking Law
in Cebu City, Philippines

Ferdinand T. Abocejo & Fernando K. Gubalane

Instructional Design Foundations
of Online Education

Safary Wa-Mbaleka

A SWOT Analysis of Globalization in
Adventist Higher Education

Pablo J. Rios 

This issue Front and Back Pages

International Forum 
Vol. 16, No. 1
April 2013

Implementation of the Anti-Human Trafficking Law
in Cebu City, Philippines


Abstract. This study investigated the extent of implementation of the
“Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act” under the Philippine Republic Act
9208 in Cebu City during the period of 2010-2011. The paper
analyzed the various advocacy campaigns and rescue operations
done by government agencies to fight human trafficking,
the complaints filed by the various law enforcement agencies, and the
programs conducted to mainstream victims into the community.
The study anchored its framework on the social stratification theory
of Weber (1978) and on RA9208 as its legal basis. It employed
a descriptive qualitative research design using secondary data,
online, refereed journals, and key informants. Results indicate that
the government finds it difficult to crack down on human trafficking
activities because of the “on-and-off” business operations
of entertainment establishments whose customers include military
men, politicians, and government officials. Apparently, most of the
victims were women and minors who were consensually involved
themselves with consent because of monetary payments for rendering
illicit services, victims are often poor, come from broken homes and
large families, and they are compelled to work for economic and
survival reasons. More often, trafficked victims execute an “Affidavit
of Desistance” in exchange for money even after a complaint
has been filed in court. Assessment of the various advocacy
campaigns and implementations of anti human trafficking initiatives
indicates the need for cooperation and strong support from the
various government mandated agencies. Hence, efforts for combating
human trafficking in Cebu City remains inadequate due to the lack of
full coordination and overlapping of functions among implementing

Keywords: Anti-human trafficking, trafficked victim,
social stratification theory


Ferdinand Tesado Abocejo, PhD Student
University Research Specialist,
Center for Research and Development (CRD)
Cebu Normal University (CNU), Osmeña Boulevard
Cebu City, Philippines

Fernando King Gubalane, MPA
Regional Prosecutor, Central Visayas Region
Department of Justice, Region VII
Cebu City, Philippines



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